Figure 2. A representation of the Five-Factor Theory personality system. Core components are in rectangles; interfacing components are in ellipses. from RR McCrae, The Physics and Chemistry of Personality, Theory & Psychology, 2009.
@joeld has a nice compilation of plans of the psyche from religion, metaphysics, and analytical psychology. While a simple diagram will not tell us all we want to know of a person, it can chart the regularities in the differences between us. I do not know exactly where the soul fits into McCrae and Costa’s diagram, but I do not doubt that it is in there somewhere.